Thursday was filled with analyses of seawater for the USF group. Water depths have generally been less than 60 meters, and water temperatures near the bottom are below minus 1 degree Celsius. Some of the ship’s rails have a rim of ice at night and thin accumulations of snow occasionally appearing in places on the deck. Since we are north of 71N, the sun is never high in the sky, accentuating the slate-greyness of the low cloud layer. We are often in sight of land, and there have been sightings of Walrus and even a snowy owl. The aurora was once again spectacular in the early morning.